There are many different types of burns caused by various external sources. Each type of burn requires its own treatment style.
FOLLOW THE FIRST AID ADVICE BELOW TO TREAT BURNS AND SCALDS:
Stop the burning process as soon as possible. This may mean removing the person from the area, dousing flames with water or smothering flames with a blanket. Do not put yourself at risk of getting burnt as well.
Remove any clothing or jewellery near the burnt area of skin. However, don’t try to remove anything that is stuck to the burnt skin because this could cause more damage.
Cool the burn with cool or lukewarm water for 10 to 30 minutes, ideally within 20 minutes of the injury occurring. Never use ice, iced water or any creams or greasy substances such as butter.
Keep yourself or the person warm. Use a blanket or layers of clothing, but avoid putting them on the injured area. Keeping warm will prevent hypothermia, where a person’s body temperature drops below 35ºC (95ºF). This is a risk if you are cooling a large burnt area, particularly in young children and elderly people.
Cover the burn with cling film. Put the cling film in a layer over the burn, rather than wrapping it around a limb. A clean clear plastic bag can be used for burns on your hand.
Treat the pain from a burn with paracetamol or ibuprofen. Always check the manufacturer’s instructions when using over-the-counter (OTC) medication. Children under 16 years of age should not be given aspirin.
WHEN TO GO TO HOSPITAL
Once you have taken these steps, you will need to decide whether further medical treatment is necessary. Go to a hospital accident and emergency (A&E) department for:
large or deep burns – any burn bigger than the affected person’s hand full thickness burns of all sizes – these burns cause white or charred skin partial thickness burns on the face, hands, arms, feet, legs or genitals – these are burns that cause blisters all chemical and electrical burns Also get medical help straight away if the person with the burn:
has other injuries that need treating
is going into shock – signs include cold clammy skin, sweating, rapid shallow breathing and weakness or dizziness
is over 60 years of age
is under five years of age
has a medical condition such as heart, lung or liver disease, or diabetes
has a weakened immune system (the body’s defense system), for example because of HIV or AIDS, or because they’re having chemotherapy for cancer
If someone has breathed in smoke or fumes, they should also seek medical attention. Some symptoms may be delayed and can include coughing, a sore throat, difficulty breathing, singed nasal hair or facial burns.
See recovering from burns and scalds for information on how serious burns are treated.
Electrical burns may not look serious, but they can be very damaging. Someone who has an electrical burn should seek immediate medical attention at an A&E department.
If the person has been injured by a low-voltage source (up to 220-240 volts) such as a domestic electricity supply, safely switch off the power supply or remove the person from the electrical source using a non-conductive material. This is a material that does not conduct electricity, such as a wooden stick or a wooden chair.
Do not approach a person who is connected to a high-voltage source (1,000 volts or more).
Chemical burns can be very damaging and require immediate medical attention at an A&E department.
If possible, find out what chemical caused the burn and tell the healthcare professionals at A&E.
If you are helping someone else, wear appropriate protective clothing, then remove any clothing on the person that has the chemical on it. If the chemical is dry, brush it off their skin. Use running water to remove any traces of the chemical from the burnt area.
If you notice any signs of sunburn, such as hot, red and painful skin, move into the shade or preferably inside.
Take a cool bath or shower to cool down the burnt area of skin.
Apply after-sun lotion to the affected area to moisturize, cool and soothe it. Do not use greasy or oily products.
If you have any pain, paracetamol or ibuprofen should help relieve it. Always read the manufacturer’s instructions and do not give aspirin to children under 16 years of age.
Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
Watch out for signs of heat exhaustion or heatstroke, where the temperature inside your body rises to 37-40°C (98.6-104°F) or above. Symptoms include dizziness, a rapid pulse or vomiting.
If a person with heat exhaustion is taken to a cool place quickly, given water to drink and has their clothing loosened, they should start to feel better within half an hour. If they don’t, they could develop heatstroke. This is a medical emergency and you’ll need to call 999 for an ambulance.